Sacrifice permissible on behalf of Prophet (saws): ..
As Salaam Aleikum wa Rahmatullahi wa Barakatuh. (May Allah's Peace, Mercy and Blessings be upon all of you)
One of our brothers/sisters has asked this question:
There is five people in my family including me, me and my wife and three children which are less than age of 10. And I am the only the person who earns money to run my family. Should i have to make qurbani separately by name of each person of my family.
Our its permissible to make qurbani behalf of Mohammed Sallallahu alai wa sallam.
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Sacrifice permissible on behalf of Prophet (saws)
In the name of Allah, We praise Him, seek His help and ask for His forgiveness. Whoever Allah guides none can misguide, and whoever He allows to fall astray, none can guide them aright. We bear witness that there is none worthy of worship but Allah Alone, and we bear witness that Muhammad (saws) is His slave-servant and the seal of His Messengers.
Al-Muwatta Hadith 23.10
Yahya related from Malik from Umara ibn Yasar that Ata ibn Yasar told him that Abu Ayyub al-Ansari (a companion of the Prophet (saws)) had told him, "We used to sacrifice one sheep, and a man sacrificed for himself and his family.
One may sacrifice as many animals as he wants per person or per family; and there is no limit to the maximum or minimum. If one is not performing the Hajj offers a sacrifice, Allah Subhanah will give him a great reward; and if one chooses not to offer a sacrifice for any reason, there is no sin on him. The maximum that can be said of such a person is that he lost a great opportunity to earn the Pleasure and Good Will of his Lord and Creator on this auspicious day of Eid al Adha.
Sahih Muslim Hadith 4845 Narrated by Aisha
Allah's Messenger (saws) commanded that a ram with black legs, black belly and black (circles) round the eyes should be brought to him, so that he should sacrifice it. He (saws) said to Aisha: “Give me the large knife”, and then said: “Sharpen it on a stone.” She did that. He (saws) then took it (the knife) and then the ram; he placed it on the ground and then sacrificed it, saying: “In the name of Allah, O Allah, accept (this sacrifice) on behalf of Muhammad, and the family of Muhammad, and the Ummah of Muhammad".
Sunan of Abu-Dawood Hadith 2789 Narrated by Jabir ibn Abdullah
The Prophet (saws) sacrificed two horned rams which were white with black markings and had been castrated. When he made them face the qiblah, he said: “I have turned my face towards Him Who created the heavens and the earth, following Abraham's religion, the true in faith, and I am not one of the polytheists. My prayer, and my service of sacrifice, my life and my death are all for Allah, the Lord of the Universe, Who has no partner. That is what I was commanded to do, and I am one of the Muslims. O Allah it comes from Thee and is given to Thee from Muhammad and his Ummah. In the name of Allah, and Allah is Most Great. He then made sacrifice.”
It is Sunnah to declare who is offering the sacrifice. If one wishes and possesses the means, one may sacrifice an animal for each member of their family, or one may sacrifice only one sheep for oneself and one's whole family or household.
Qurbani for deceased
Sahih Al-Bukhari Hadith 9.418 Narrated by Ibn Abbas
A woman came to the Prophet (saws) and said, "My mother vowed to perform the Hajj but she died before performing it. Should I perform the Hajj on her behalf?" He (saws) said, "Yes! Perform the Hajj on her behalf. See, if your mother had been in debt, would you have paid her debt?" She said, "Yes." He (saws) said, "So you should pay what is for Him, as Allah has more right that one should fulfill one's obligations to Him."
Although there is absolutely no evidence in the authentic traditions of the Prophet (saws) or in the traditions of the noble companions of the Messenger of Allah (saws) that they would offer a sacrifice in the name of their deceased parents or loved ones, in light of the above permission where the Prophet (saws) allowed the woman to go to Hajj (which obviously includes the performing of a sacrifice) for her deceased mother, some scholars have opined that there is no harm if one wishes to offer a sacrifice for their deceased parents or loved ones.
On the other hand, some scholars have opined from the same hadith that the permission the Prophet (saws) gave the woman was specific as the deceased mother had made a vow to perform the Hajj; and the Prophet (saws) merely permitted the woman to fulfill the vow of her deceased mother.
In our humble opinion if one’s parents or loved ones had vowed to perform a sacrifice and subsequently death overtook them before they could fulfill their vow, it would be permissible for their children or loved ones to fulfill their vow and offer the sacrifice. But to make it a custom or a rite or ritual to regularly offer a sacrifice for their deceased loved ones every year is not something which has been sanctioned by the practice of the Messenger of Allah (saws) or his noble companions.
To make a specific sacrifice for the Prophet (saws) would indeed be considered and deemed an innovation in the deen of Islam, for there is absolutely no evidence in the established traditions of his noble family or companions that they ever offered a sacrifice in the name of their noble Prophet (saws)!
Whatever written of Truth and benefit is only due to Allah’s Assistance and Guidance, and whatever of error is only ones. Allah Alone Knows Best and He is the Only Source of Strength.
Your brothers and well wishers in Islam,
Members of Islamhelpline