165. It is He who hath made you (His) agents inheritors of the earth: He hath raised you in ranks some above others: that he may try you in the gifts He hath given you: for thy Lord is quick in punishment: yet He is indeed Oft-Forgiving Most Merciful.
988. Cf. ii. 30 and n. where I have translated "Khalifa" as "Vicegerent", it being god's Plan to make Adam (as representing mankind) His vicegerent on earth. Another idea implied in "Khalifa" is that of "successor, heir, or inheritor," i.e., one who has the ultimate ownership after the present possessors, to whom a life-tenancy has been given by the owner, have passed away. In xv. 23 occurs the striking word "heirs" (warithun) as applied to God: "We give life and death, and We are the Heirs (of Inheritors)." The same idea occurs in iii. 180, where see n. 485.