Can Jumu’ah prayer be held in Dar al-Harb?
Allaah has enjoined Jumu’ah upon the Muslims who are settled in a city or village, and He has forbidden them to become distracted from that by buying and selling, etc, because of the general meaning of the verse (interpretation of the meaning):
“O you who believe (Muslims)! When the call is proclaimed for the Salaah (prayer) on Friday (Jumu‘ah prayer), come to the remembrance of Allaah [Jumu‘ah religious talk (Khutbah) and Salaah (prayer)] and leave off business (and every other thing). That is better for you if you did but know!”
And it was narrated in the hadeeth of ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Umar and Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with them) that they heard the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) say from the minbar: “There are people who should stop neglecting Jumu’ah, or else Allaah will put a seal on their hearts, then they will surely be among the negligent.” (Muslim 2/591). And the ummah is agreed on the fact that Jumu’ah is obligatory. There is no sound evidence in sharee’ah to indicate that the obligation of praying Jumu’ah applies only in dar al-Islam and not in dar al-harb, so the Muslims who are settled in dar al-kufr are obliged to perform Jumu’ah prayer if the conditions are met, following the general meaning of the texts of the Qur’aan and Sunnah which indicate that it is an individual obligation (fard ‘ayn) on the Muslims, if the conditions stipulated by sharee’ah are met.