Nothing has been proven about the place where Adam came down to earth
What is proven definitively in the Holy Qur'aan is that Adam and Hawwa’ (peace be upon them) came down from Paradise to earth after they ate from the tree.
Allah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Then the Shaytaan (Satan) made them slip therefrom (the Paradise), and got them out from that in which they were. We said: ‘Get you down, all, with enmity between yourselves. On earth will be a dwelling place for you and an enjoyment for a time’”
With regard to the place where they came down on earth, the Qur'aan does not say anything about it, and there is no saheeh, marfoo‘ hadeeth in the Sunnah of the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) which explains that, although there are some da‘eef (weak) hadeeths, such as the hadeeth that says: “Adam came down in India and felt lonely…”. This was narrated by Ibn ‘Asaakir in Tareekh Dimashq (7/437) and classed as da‘eef by Shaykh al-Albaani in al-Silsilah al-Da‘eefah, no. 403. There are also other hadeeths which speak of this matter, but their isnaads are very weak.
The only saheeh reports about this matter are the words of some of the salaf, most of which are taken from the knowledge of the people of the Book which were transmitted during their time. Such reports cannot be relied upon or trusted, and it is not permissible to believe in what they mention of things concerning which our religion is silent. Rather they may be narrated for the purpose of story-telling only.
Despite that, the scholarly opinions concerning this matter differ.
Some of them said: Adam came down in India and Hawwa’ came down in Jeddah.
Some of them said that they both came down in India.
Some of them said that Adam came down in a land between Makkah and al-Taa’if called Dahna.
Some of them said that Adam came down on al-Safa and Hawwa’ came down on al-Marwah.
Al-Haafiz Ibn Katheer (may Allah have mercy on him) said:
Al-Saddi said: Allah said (interpretation of the meaning): “Get you down, all” [al-Baqarah 2:36]. So they came down; Adam came down in India and the Black Stone and a handful of leaves from Paradise came down with him, and he scattered them in India, and a perfume tree grew, which is the origin of what comes from India of perfume from the handful of leaves that Adam brought down. Adam only took them because of his sorrow at leaving Paradise when he was expelled from it.
‘Imraan ibn ‘Uyaynah said, (narrating) from ‘Ata’ ibn al-Saa’ib, from Sa‘eed ibn Jubayr, from Ibn ‘Abbaas, who said: Adam came down from Paradise in Dahna, in the land of India.
Ibn Abi Haatim said: Abu Zar‘ah told us: Uthmaan ibn Abi Shaybah told us: Jareer told us: from ‘Ata’, from Sa‘eed, from Ibn ‘Abbaas who said: Adam (peace be upon him) came down in a land called Dahna, between Makkah and al-Taa’if.
It was narrated that al-Hasan al-Basri said: Adam came down in India and Hawwa’ in Jeddah, and Iblees in Dastumeesaan a few miles from Basrah, and the serpent came down in Asbahaan. This was narrated by Ibn Abi Haatim.
Ibn Abi Haatim said: Muhamamd ibn ‘Ammaar ibn al-Haarith told us: Muhammad ibn Sa‘eed ibn Saabiq told us: ‘Amr ibn Abi Qays told us, from Ibn ‘Adiyy, from Ibn ‘Umar, who said: Adam came down on al-Safa and Hawwa’ on al-Marwah. End quote.
Tafseer al-Qur’aan al-‘Azeem, 1/237
But all of these are words for which there is no evidence.
And Allah knows best.