Hadiths for offerring prayer and fateha for the dead
Mu' meneen Brothers and Sisters,
As Salaam Aleikum wa Rahmatullahi wa Barakatuh. (May Allah's Peace, Mercy and Blessings be upon all of you)
One of our brothers/sisters has asked this question:
Could you please let me know what the hadiths/sunnah say about offering prayers for the dead.
What about distribution of sweetmeats/mithai for "fateha" or having a "feteha jamaan"?
May Allah bless you and your team
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Hadiths for offerring prayer and fateha for the dead
In the name of Allah, We praise Him, seek His help and ask for His forgiveness. Whoever Allah guides none can misguide, and whoever He allows to fall astray, none can guide them aright. We bear witness that there is no one (no idol, no person, no grave, no prophet, no imam, no dai, nobody!) worthy of worship but Allah Alone, and we bear witness that Muhammad(saws) is His slave-servant and the seal of His Messengers.
Q-1: Could you please let me know what the hadiths/sunnah say about offering prayers for the dead.
When a believer dies, his brothers in faith should offer the funeral janaaza prayers for him; and may pray as the Prophet of Allah (saws) prayed for the companions and believers when they died. Praying the funeral janaaza prayers for a believer who has died, is an obligatory duty (fard-kifaayah) for the believers; whereby if some of the believers offer the janaaza prayers, the whole community is absolved from the duty. But if no one offers the janaaza prayers, it will be a sin on the whole community.
Narrated Abu Hurairah, : The Prophet (saws), prayed in one of the funeral prayers: Allahumma anta Rubbuha wa ant khalaqtaha wa anta razaqtaha wa ant hadaytaha lil lslam wa anta qabadata ruha-ha wa anta alamu bisirriha wa 'alaniyatiha. Ji'nashuf'ala-hafaghfir laha zanbaha (Oh Allah ! You are her Sustainer, You are her Creator, You provided her with sustenance, guided her to Islam, caused her to die, and You best know her secret and public life. We plead to You on her behalf to forgive her sins).
Naraated Wa'ilah ibn al-Asqa: "The Prophet (saws), led us in a funeral prayer for a man from among the Muslims. I heard him saying: Allahumma inna fulana ibna fulan fi dhimatika wa habla jawaraka, fa-qihu min fitnatal qabri wa adhabin nar wa anta ahlal wafa' wal haq, allahumma faghfirlahu war-rahmhufa innaka antal ghafurur Raheem. ( O Allah! So-and-so, son of so-and-so, is under Your protection and mercy, so protect him from the trial of the grave and the torture of Hell Fire. You are the guardian of the truthful and the faithful. OAllah! Forgive him and be merciful to him, as You are the Most Merciful, Most Forgiving).
Narrated by Ahmad and Abu Daw'ud.
Narrated Awf ibn Malik: "I heard the Prophet (saws), while offering a funeral prayer, say: Allahumma-ghfir lahu war-rhamhu wa'fu anhu wa 'afahu wa akrim nuzulahu wa wassi' mudkhalahu waghsilhu bi-ma' ind wa thalj wa barad wa naqi minal khataya kama yunaqi athaubudanas minad danas wa abdilhu daran khairan min darihi wa ahlan khairan min ahlihi wa zaujan khairan min zaujihi wa qih fitnatal qabr wa adhaban nar . (O Allah! Forgive him, have mercy on him, pardon him, heal him, be generous to him, cause his entrance to be wide and comfortable, wash him with the most pure and clean water, and purify him from sins as a white garment is washed clean of dirt. Give him in exchange a home better than his home (on earth) and a family better than his family, and a wife better than his wife, and protect him from the trial of the grave and the torture of Hell Fire). This is narrated by Muslim.
it is reported from Abu Hurairah that the Prophet (saws), offered a funeral prayer and said: Allahummaghfir lihayatina wa mayatina wa saghirina wa kabirina wa dhakirina wa unthana. Allahumma man ahyatahu minna fa-ahyahu 'alal Islam wa man tawafthu minna fa-tawafthu 'ala iman. Allahumma la tahrimna ajrahu wa la tudalana ba'dahu. (O Allah! Forgive our living, our dead, our young, our old, our males and our females, those of us who are present, and those who are absent. O Allah! Whomsoever among us You keep to live, make him to live in Islam, and whomsoever You cause to die, let him die in faith. O Allah! Do not deprive us of our reward for (supplicating for) him, and cause us not to go astray after him). This is narrated by Ahmad.
Q-2: What about distribution of sweetmeats/mithai for "fateha" or having a "feteha jamaan"?
There is absolutely no evidence in the Quran and Sunnah for the ritual of distributing sweatmeats/mithai for Fateha over the dead; or for having a fateha jaman or feast in the name of the dead. This ritual has absolutely no basis and evidence from the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah (saws); therefore, it is an innovation in the deen brought by Prophet Mohamed (saws). A believer, who truly believes in Allah and the Last Day, must abstain from following any innovation, but rather strive to follow the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah (saws).
The Sunnah of the Prophet (saws) was that he prayed the funeral prayer, buried the person, and told the family to mourn for 3-days for the deceased. During this period, he did not read or finish the Quran to transfer the reward to the deceased, nor did he feed the people who came to mourn, nor did he serve the fateha (food) on the corresponding 3rd, 10th, month, 40th, or yearly dates. In fact, he told the neighbors and other muslims to provide food to the family of the deceased for three days during their period of mourning.
We are commanded in the Holy Quran to follow the tradition or way of the Prophet (saws) and any changes in the way or tradition of the Prophet(saws) is known as a bida or innovation. And we must stay away from every innovation to keep our deen and religion pure; and live our lives according to the guidance and principles of the Holy Quran and the traditions of the Messenger of Allah (saws).
The Prophet (saws) himself warned that there will come a time when people will add and subtract from the deen of Islam at will. He cursed the people who introduced an innovation in Islam, and those who followed it.
It has been reported by Imam Ali ibn Abu Talib (r.a.) that the Prophet (saws) said: If anyone introduces an innovation (in religion), he will be responsible for it. If anyone introduces an innovation or gives shelter to a man who introduces an innovation (in religion), he is cursed by Allah, by His angels, and by all the people.
It has been reported by Jabir ibn Abdullah (r.a.) in another authentic narration that the Prophet of Allah (saws) said in a sermon: The best speech is that which is embodied in the Book of Allah, the Al Quran; and the best guidance is the guidance given by me, Mohamed (saws). The most evil affairs are the innovations, and every innovation is an error.
Thus the rasms of khatm-ul-Quran and the feeding of the congregation on specially appointed days like the 3rd, 10th, 30th, 40th, etc. are nothing but innovations in Islam and must be avoided by the true believers, if indeed we fear Allah and the Last Day.
Whatever written of Truth and benefit is only due to Allahs Assistance and Guidance, and whatever of error is of me. Allah Alone Knows Best and He is the Only Source of Strength.
Your Brother in Islam,