Biographies of the four imams
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As salamo alaikum
Could you please give me the summarized Biography of the following four Imams :
1. Abu Hanifa No`man Bin Sabit
2. Malik Bin Anas
3. Muhammad bin Idris Ash Shafie (Imam Shafie)
4. Ahmad Bin Hamble.
Jazak Allah Khair
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Biographies of the four imams
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Summarized biography of Imam Abu Hanifah.
Abu Hanifa belong the generation of the Tabiun, the generation after the noble companions of the Messenger of Allah (saws). He reportedly saw the noble companion and attendant to the Prophet (saws), Hadrat Anas ibn Malik (r.a.) and transmitted hadiths from him.
Abu Hanifa was born 67 years after the death of the Prophet Mohamed (saws) in the city of Kufa in Iraq during the reign of the Abdul Malik bin Marwan. His father, Thabit bin Zuta, a trader from Kabul, part of Khorasan in Persia (the capital of modern day Afghanistan), was 40 years old at the time of Abu Hanifa's birth.
His ancestry is generally accepted as being of non-Arab origin (Persian) as suggested by the etymology of then names of his grandfather (Zuta) and great-grandfather (Mah).
Hanifa grew up in a period of oppression during the caliphates
of Abdul Malik bin Marwan and his son Al-Walid I.
The governorship of
Following the deaths of Hajjaj in 95 AH and Walid in 96 AH, justice and good administration began to make a comeback with the caliphates of Sulaiman bin Abdul Malik and thereafter Umar bin Abdul Aziz. Umar encouraged education to such an extent that every home became a learning institution.
On the advice of As-Shabi, a renowned scholar of the times, Abu Hanifa embarked on a prolific quest for knowledge that would in due course have a profound impact on the history of Islam. He spent a great deal of time in the tutelage of Hammad ibn Abi Sulayman, a great jurist of Kufah. Abu Hanifa was also one of the distinguished students of Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq (the Prophets (saws) great grandson).
It is recorded that in the year 763, Al-Mansur, the Abbasid monarch offered Abu Hanifa the post of Chief Judge of the State, but he declined to accept the offer, choosing to remain independent. In his reply to the offer of the monarch Al-Mansur, Abu Hanifa refused the post by saying that he did not regard himself worthy of the position of being appointed Chief Judge of the State. Al-Mansur, who had his agenda for offering the post to Abu Hanifa, lost his temper and accused Abu Hanifa of lying.
"If I am lying," Abu Hanifa said, "then my statement is doubly correct. How can you appoint a liar to the exalted post of a Chief Qadi (Judge)?"
Incensed by this reply, the ruler had Abu Hanifa arrested, locked in prison and severely tortured. Even in prison it is reported that the indomitable jurist continued to teach those who were permitted to come to him.
His student Abu Yusuf was subsequently appointed Chief Judge of the State by the monarch.
In 767, Abu Hanifa died in prison. It was reported that so many people attended his funeral that the funeral service was repeated six times for more than 50,000 people who had amassed before he was actually buried.
Summarized biography of Imam Malik.
Mālik ibn Anas ibn Malik ibn 'Āmr al-Asbahi popularly known as Imam Malik is credited with founding the Maliki School of Islamic Jurisprudence. Imam Shafei, who was one of Imam Malik's students for nine years and a scholarly giant in his own right is reported to have stated, "when scholars are mentioned, Malik is like the star amongst them."
was born the son of Anas ibn Malik and Aaliyah bint Shurayk al-Azdiyya in Medina in the
year 711. His family was originally from the al-Asbahi tribe of Yemen, but his great
grandfather Abu 'Amir relocated the family to
The high reputation of Imam Malik as a scholar and teacher attracted people from all regions of the then Islamic Empire. Among the notables who benefited from Imam Maliks learning were caliphs like Al-Mansur, Medhi, Harun Rasheed and Mamun; jurist like Imam Shafi, Sufian Suri and Qazi Muhammad Yusuf; scholars like Ibn Shahab Zahri, Yahya bin Saeed Ansari, Ibrahim bin Adham, Zunnun Misri and Muhammad bin Fazil bin Abbas. According to reliable historical sources, the number of his students who acquired eminence as scholars in their lives was more than 1,300.
Imam Malik left behind him more than a dozen works including his most famous and widely used: Al-Muwatta.
Malik continued to serve the noble cause of education for 62 years. He died on
11th Rabiul Awwal 179 A.H, at the age of 86 or 89 in Medina in 795
and is buried in the
Summarized biography of Imam As-Shafei.
Abu Abdullāh Muhammad ibn Idrīs al-Shafei popularly known as Imam Shafei was reported born in the year 767 and is credited with founding the Shafei School of Islamic Jurispurdence.
As-Shafi'i belonged to the Qurayshi clan Banu Muttalib which was the sister clan of the Banu Hashim to which Prophet (saws) and the Abbasid caliphs belonged. Although it is reported that Imam Shafei had connections in the highest social circles, he grew up in abject poverty.
was born in Gaza
and moved to Makkah
when he was about two years old. He subsequently moved to Madinah
to teach others of the message of Islam and be taught by Imam Malik.
In addition to living in Makkah and Madinah, the Imam reportedly aslo lived a
portion of his life in
Summarized biography of Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal.
Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Hanbal Abu Abd Allah al-Shaybani popularly known as Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal is considered the founder of the Hanbali School of Islamic Jurisprudence.
actual place of birth of Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal is disputed by the historians. While
the majority of historians claim that he was born in
is reported that the eminent scholar Imam Shafei said: I left
During the reign of the Abbasid caliph Al-Mutasim Imam Ahmad faced the wrath of the great fitnah or trial of the timesie. the fitnah of Mutazila. The caliph and his court tried to force and coerce the Imam to publicly espouse the position that the Holy Quran was the creation of Allah, but Imam Ahmad unflinchingly stood his ground and refused to renounce his belief that the Glorious Quran is the Word of Allah Subhanah. For taking this stand, the Imam was imprisoned and severely tortured for twenty-eight long months by the then caliph Al-Mutasim, but the Imam steadfastly stood his ground.
Ahmad died in 241/855 in
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