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I asked u b4 about surehfatah n its significance.

Mu' meneen Brothers and Sisters,

As Salaam Aleikum wa Rahmatullahi wa Barakatuh. (May Allah's Peace, Mercy and Blessings be upon all of you)

 

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respected brother,

asak
i asked u b4 about surehfatah n its significance but u replied me about sureh fateha pls do xplain me about sureh FATAH not fateha . pls do xplain me about sureh fatah of chapter 28 

 

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Details of surah Fatah

In the name of Allah, We praise Him, seek His help and ask for His forgiveness. Whoever Allah guides none can misguide, and whoever He allows to fall astray, none can guide them aright. We bear witness that there is none worthy of worship but Allah Alone, and we bear witness that Muhammad (saws) is His slave-servant and the seal of His Messengers.

 

Dear and beloved Sister in Islam, we sincerely and humbly seek your forgiveness for our oversight..Here follows the details and the historical background of the revelation of the 48th Surah of the Glorious Quran, Surah Al-Fath.

 

Ref: Name

The Name of the Surah is derived from the words of the very first verse of the Surah, and it deals with the Great Victory (Fatah) that Allah Subhanah granted the Noble Prophet (saws) and the believers in the form of the Truce of Hudaibiyah made between the pagan Quraysh of Makkah and the Muslims of Madinah.

 

Ref: Period of Revelation

Traditions concur that this blessed Surah was Revealed by the Lord in the month of Dhul-Qadah six years after Hijrah or the migration of the Prophet (saws), at a time when the Noble Prophet (saws) was on his return journey to Madinah after concluding the Truce of Hudaibiyah with the disbelievers of Makkah.

 

Ref: Historical Background

The events in connection with which this Surah was revealed began like this: One day the Holy Prophet (saws) saw in a dream that he had gone to Makkah with his companions and had performed the Umrah or minor pilgrimage there. Obviously, the Prophet's (saws) dream could not be a mere dream and fiction for it is a kind of Divine Inspiration as Allah Subhanah Himself has confirmed in verse 27 of the same Surah and Declared that He Himself had shown that dream to His Messenger (saws). Therefore, it was not merely a dream but a Divine Inspiration which the Holy Prophet (saws) had to obey and follow.

 

Apparently, there was no possible way of acting on this inspiration. The disbelieving pagans of the Quraish of Makkah had debarred the Muslims from proceeding to the Kabah for the past six years and no Muslim had been allowed during that period to approach the Kabah for the purpose of performing Hajj or Umrah. Therefore, it could not be expected that they would allow the Holy Prophet (saws) and his companions to enter Makkah. If they had proceeded to Makkah in the pilgrim garments with the intention of performing Umrah, along with their arms, this would have provoked the enemy to war, and if they had proceeded unarmed, this would have meant endangering his own as well as his Companions lives. Under conditions such as these nobody could see and suggest how the Divine Inspiration could be acted upon.

But the Prophet's (saws) position was different. It demanded that he should carry out whatever Command his Lord gave fearlessly and without any apprehension and doubt. Therefore, the Holy Prophet (saws) informed his noble companions of his dream and began to make preparations for the journey towards Makkah for Umrah.

 

The Prophet (saws) made a public announcement among the tribes living in the suburbs of Madinah that he (saws) was proceeding for Umrah to Makkah and the people could join him. Those who could only see the apparent conditions thought that he (saws) and his companions were going into the very jaws of death! The majority of them therefore were not inclined to accompany him in the expedition. But the believers who had true faith in Allah and His Messenger (saws) were least bothered about the consequences. For them this information was enough that it was a Divine Inspiration and Allah's Prophet (saws) had made up his mind to carry it into effect. After this nothing could hinder them from accompanying the Messenger of Allah (saws). Thus, 1,400 of the companions made preparations to accompany their beloved Prophet (saws) on this highly dangerous journey.

 

This blessed caravan set off from Madinah in the beginning of Dhul Qa'dah, A.H. 6. At Dhul Hulaifah they entered the ehram or pilgrims robe with the intention to perform the Umrah pilgrimage, took seventy camels with collars round their necks indicating that they were sacrificial animals; kept only a sword each in its sheaths, which the pilgrims to the Kabah were allowed to carry according to the recognized custom of Arabia, but no other weapons. Thus, the caravan set out for Makkah, chanting the prescribed slogans of talbiyaahLabbaik, Allahuma labbaik..

 

The nature of the relations between the pagans of Makkah and the believers of Madinah in those days was known too well to every Arab. Just the previous year, in Shawwal A.H. 5, the Quraish mustering the united strength of the Arab tribes had invaded Madinah and the well known Battle of Ahzaab had taken place. Therefore, when the Holy Prophet (saws) along with such a large caravan set off for the home of his blood-thirsty enemy, the whole of Arabia looked up with amazement, and the people also noticed that the caravan was not going with the intention to fight but was proceeding to the House of Allah in a forbidden month in the pilgrims garb carrying sacrificial animals and was absolutely unarmed.

 

The pagans of Quraish were absolutely confounded at this bold step taken by the Holy Prophet (saws). The month of Dhil-Qa'dah was one of those forbidden months which had been held as sacred for pilgrimage in Arabia for centuries. Nobody had a right to interfere with a caravan coming for pilgrimage in the pilgrims garb in this month; so much so that even an enemy tribe could not hinder it from passing through its territory according to the recognized law of the land. The Quraish therefore were caught in a dilemma, for if they attacked this caravan from Madinah and stopped it from entering Makkah, this would arouse a clamor of protest in the whole country, and all the Arab tribes would have the misgiving that the Quraish had monopolized the Ka'bah as exclusively their ownand contrary to the law that prevailed at the times, the Quraish could take steps to stop any tribe or people approaching the Kabah for pilgrimage just as they had stopped the pilgrims from Madinah!


 

This, the chiefs of the pagan Quraish thought would be a grave mistake, which would cause the entire Arabia to revolt against them. But, on the other hand, if they allowed Muhammad (saws) and his large caravan to enter their city safely, they would lose their image of power in Arabia and the people would say that they were afraid of the Prophet (saws) and the believers. At last, after a great deal of confusion, perplexity and hesitation they were overcome by their false sense of honor, and for the sake of their prestige they took the decision that they would at no cost allow the caravan to enter the city of Makkab.

 

The Prophet (saws) had dispatched a man of the tribe Bani Kaab as a secret agent so that he may keep him fully informed of the intentions and movements of the Quraish. When the caravan of the Prophet (saws) reached Usfan, he brought the news that the Quraish had reached Dhi Tuwa with full preparations and they had sent Khalid bin Walid with two hundred cavalry men in advance towards Kura'al-Ghamim to intercept the pilgrim caravan. The Quraish wanted somehow to provoke the believers into fighting so that they may tell the Arabs that those people had actually come to fight and had put on the pilgrims garments for pilgrimage only as a form of deception.

 

Immediately on receipt of this information the Prophet (saws) changed his route and following a very rugged, rocky track and reached a place called Hudaibiyah, which was situated right on the boundary of the sacred Makkan territory. Here, he (saws) was visited by Budail bin Warqa the chief of the Bani Khuza'ah, along with some men of his tribe. They asked what he had come for. The Holy Prophet (saws) replied that he and his companions had come only for pilgrimage to the House of Allah and for going round it in worship and not for war. The men of Khuza'ah went and told this to the Quraish chiefs and counseled them not to interfere with the pilgrims. But the Quraish were obstinate. They sent Hulays bin Alqamah, the chief of the Ahabish tribe to the Prophet (saws) to persuade him to go back. Their object was that when the Prophet (saws) would not listen to Hulays, he would come back disappointed and then the entire power of the Ahabish tribe would be on their side. But when Hulays went and saw that the whole caravan had put on the pilgrims garments, had brought sacrificial camels with festive collars round their necks, and had come for doing reverence to the House of Allah and not to fight, he returned to Makkah without having any dialogue with the Prophet (saws) and told the Quraish chiefs plainly that those people had no other object but to pay a visit to the Ka'bah. If the Quraish chose to debar them from it, the Ahabish tribe would not join them in their unlawful violation of the sacred customs and traditions of the land.

 

Then the Quraish sent Urwah bin Mas'ud Thaqafi and he had lengthy negotiations with the Prophet (saws) in an effort to persuade him to give up his intention to enter Makkah. But the Prophet (saws) gave him also the same reply that he had given to the chief of the Khuza'ah, that they had not come to fight but to visit and perform the pilgrimage of the Sacred House.

 

In the meantime when the messages were coming and the negotiations were going on, the Quraish tried time and time again to quietly launch sudden attacks on the Muslim camp in order to provoke the companions and somehow incite them to war, but every time they did so the companions' forbearance and patience and the Holy Prophet's (saws) wisdom and sagacity frustrated their designs. On one occasion forty or fifty of their men came at night and attacked the Muslim camp with stones and arrows. The companions arrested all of them and took them before the Holy Prophet (saws), but he (saws) let them go. On another occasion eighty men came from the direction of Tan'im right at the time of the Fajr Prayer and made a sudden attack. They were also caught, but the Holy Prophet (saws) forgave them, too. Thus, the Quraish went on meeting failure after failure in every one of their designs.

 

At last, the Holy Prophet sent Hadrat Uthman (r.a.) as his own messenger to Makkah with the message that they had not come to fight but only for pilgrimage and had brought their sacrificial camels along, and they would go back after performing the rite of pilgrimage and offering the sacrifice. But the Quraish did not agree and withheld Hadrat Uthman in the city. In the meantime a rumor spread that Hadrat Uthman (r.a.) had been murdered; and when he did not return in time the Muslims took the rumor to be true. Now they could show no more forbearance. When the ambassador was put to death, the Muslims had no alternative but to prepare for war.

 

Therefore, the Holy Prophet summoned all his companions together and took a solemn pledge from them that they avenge the death of Hadrat Uthman (r.a.) and would fight to death, if necessary. In view of the critical occasion it was not an ordinary undertaking. The Muslims numbered only 1400 and had come without any weapons, were encamping at the boundary of Makkah, 250 miles away from their own city, and the enemy could attack them in full strength, and could surround them with its allies from the adjoining tribes as well. In spite of this, none from the caravan except one man failed to give his pledge to fight to death, and there could be no greater proof of their dedication and sincerity than that in the Cause of Allah. This pledge is well known in the history of Islam as the pledge of Ridwan.

 

Later it was known that the rumor about the murder of Hadrat Uthman (r.a.)was false. Not only did he return, but under Suhail bin Amr from the Quraiah also arrived a deputation to negotiate peace with the Holy Prophet. Now, the Quraish no more insisted that they would disallow the Holy Prophet and his Companions to enter Makkah. However, in order to save their face they only insisted that he went back that year but could come the following year to perform the Umrah. After lengthy negotiations peace was concluded on the following terms:

1.                  War would remain suspended between the Quraish and the Muslims for ten years, and no party would indulge in any hostility, open or secret, against the other.

2.                  If any one during that period from among the Quraish went over to Madinah, without his guardian's permission, the believers would have to return him back to the Quraish; but if one from Madinah came over to the Quraish, they would not return him to the Muslims.

3.                  Every Arab tribe would have the option to join either side as its ally and enter the treaty.

4.                  The Prophet (saws) and the believers would go back that year and could come the following year for Umrah and stay in Makkah for three days only, provided that they brought only one sheathed sword each, and no other weapon of war. In those three days the Makkans would vacate the city for them (so that there was no chance of a clash), and that they would not be allowed to take along anybody from Makka on their return.

 

When the conditions of the treaty were being settled, the whole of the Muslim army was feeling greatly upset. No one understood the expedience because of which the Prophet (saws) was accepting the conditions of such a seemingly unfair and unjust treaty. No one was farsighted enough to foresee the great benefit that was to result from this treaty. The disbelieving Quraish looked at it as their victory, and the Muslims were upset as to why they should be humiliated to accept such seemingly unjust conditions. Even a statesman of the calibre of Hadrat Umar (r.a.) said that he had never given way to doubt since the time he had embraced Islam, but on this occasion he also could not avoid it. Impatient he went to Hadrat Abu Bakr (r.a.) and said "Is he (the Holy Prophet (saws)) not Allah's Messenger, and are we not Mnslims, and are they not polytheists? Then, why should we agree to what is humiliating to our Faith?" Hadrat Abu Bakr (r.a.) replied "O Umar, Mohamed (saws) is surely Allah's Messenger, and Allah will never make him the loser." Unsatisfied, Umar went to the Holy Prophet (saws) himself and put the same questions to him, and he also gave him the same replies as Hadrat Abu Bakr (r.a.) had given. Afterwards Hadrat Umar (r.a.) continued to offer voluntary prayers and give alms so that Allah may pardon his insolence that he had shown towards the Holy Prophet (saws) on that occasion.

 

Two things in the treaty were highly disturbing for the Muslims first, the second condition, about which they said that it was an expressly unfair condition, for if they had to return a fugitive from Makkah, why should not the Quraish return a fugitive from Madinah? To this the Holy Prophet replied: "What use would be he to us, who fled from us to them? May Allah keep him away from us! And if we return the one who flees to us from them, Allah will create some other way out for him." The other thing that was rankling in their minds was the fourth condition. The Muslims thought that agreeing to it meant that they were going back unsuccessful and this was humiliating. Furthermore, the question that was causing them to feel upset was that they had accepted the condition of going back without performing the pilgrimage to the Ka'bah, whereas the Holy Prophet (saws) had seen in the vision that they were performing tawaf of the Kaabah. To this the Holy Prophet (saws) replied that in his vision the year had not been specified. According to the treaty conditions, therefore, they would perform the tawaf the following year if it pleased Allah.

 

When the document was finished, the Holy Prophet (saws) spoke to the companions and told them to slaughter their sacrificial animals at that very place, shave their heads and put off the pilgrim garments, but no one moved from his place. The Holy Prophet (saws) repeated the order thrice but the companions were so overcome by depression and dejection that they did not comply. During his entire period of Prophethood, on no occasion had it ever happened that the Prophet (saws) should give an explicit command to his companions to do a thing and they should not hasten to comply with it! This caused the Prophet (saws) a great shock, and he (saws) returned to his tent and expressed his grief before his wife, Hadrat Umm Salamah (r.a.). She said, "You may quietly go and slaughter your own camel and have your head shaved. After that the people would automatically do what you did and would understand that whatever decision had been taken would not be changed." Precisely the same thing happened. The people slaughtered their animals, shaved their heads or cut their hair short and put off the pilgrim garb, but their hearts were still afflicted with grief.

 

Later, when this caravan was returning to Madinah, feeling depressed and dejected at the Truce of Hudaibiyah, this blessed Surah al-Fatah was revealed by the Lord, which told the Muslims that the treaty that they were regarding as their defeat, was indeed a Great and Manifest Victory. After the Surah was revealed, the Holy Prophet (saws) summoned the believers together and said: "Today such a thing has been sent down to me, which is more valuable to me than the world and what it contains." Then he (saws) recited the Surah al-Fatah, especially to Hadrat Umar, for he was the one who was feeling most dejected.

 

Although the believers were satisfied when they heard this Divine Revelation, not much longer afterwards the advantages of this treaty began to appear one after the other until every one became fully convinced that this peace treaty indeed was a Great Victory indeed:

1.                  In it for the first time the existence of the Islamic State in Arabia was duly recognized. Before this in the eyes of the Arabs the position of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (saws) and his companions was no more than of mere rebels against the Quraish and other Arab tribes, and they regarded them as the outlaws. Now the Quraish themselves by concluding this agreement with the Holy Prophet (saws) recognized his sovereignty over the territories of the Islamic State and opened the way for the Arab tribes to enter treaties of alliance with either of the political powers they liked.

2.                  By admitting the right of pilgrimage to the House of Allah for the Muslims, the Quraish also admitted that Islam was not an anti-religious creed, as they had so far been assuming, but it was one of the admitted religions of Arabia, and like the other Arabs, its followers also had the right to perform the rites of Hajj and Umrah. This diminished the hatred in the Arabs hearts that had been caused by the propaganda made by the Quraish against Islam.

3.                  The signing of a no-war pact for ten years provided full peace to the Muslims, and spreading to every nook and corner of Arabia they preached Islam with such spirit and speed that within two years after Hudaibiyah the number of the people who embraced Islam far exceeded those who had embraced it during the past 19 years or so. It was all due to this treaty that only two years later when in consequence of the Quraish violating the terms of the treaty, the Muslims (saws) invaded Makkah accompanied by an army of 10,000 strong.

4.                  After the suspension of hostilities by the Quraish, the Holy Prophet (saws) had the opportunity to establish and strengthen Islamic rule in the territories under him and to turn the Islamic society into a full fledged civilization and way of life by the enforcement of Islamic law.

5.                  Another gain that accrued from this truce with the Quraish was that being assured of peace from the south the Muslims overpowered all the opponent forces in the north and central Arabia easily. Just three months after Hudaibiyah, Khaiber, the major stronghold of the Jews, was conquered and after it the Jewish settlements of Fadak, Wad-il Qura, Taima and Tabuk also fell to Islam one after the other. Then almost all other tribes of central Arabia, which were bound in alliance with the Jews or Quraish, came under the sway of Islam. Thus, within two years after Hudaibiyah the balance of power in Arabia was so changed that the strength of the Quraish and pagan gave way and the domination of Islam became certain.

 

These were the blessings that the Muslims gained from the peace treaty which they were looking upon as their defeat and the Quraish as their victory. The Surah al-Fatah should be read with this historical background in view in order to fully understand it

 

Whatever written of Truth and benefit is only due to Allahs Assistance and Guidance, and whatever of error is of me alone. Allah Alone Knows Best and He is the Only Source of Strength.

 

Your brother and well wisher in Islam,

 

 

Burhan

 


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