Three types of Tawheed
Mu' meneen Brothers and Sisters,
As Salaam Aleikum wa Rahmatullahi wa Barakatuh. (May Allah's Peace, Mercy and Blessings be upon all of you)
One of our brothers/sisters has asked this question:
Salaam Alaikum Burhan
Can you please explain these three terms. (1) Tawheed Ur Ruboobyah (2) Tawheed Ul Uloohiyyah and (3) Tawheed Asma Wa Sifaat.
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Three types of Tawheed
In the name of Allah, We praise Him, seek His help and ask for His forgiveness. Whoever Allah guides none can misguide, and whoever He allows to fall astray, none can guide them aright. We bear witness that there is no one (no idol, no person, no grave, no prophet, no imam, no dai, nobody!) worthy of worship but Allah Alone, and we bear witness that Muhammad(saws) is His slave-servant and the seal of His Messengers.
May Allah Subhanah bestow His Mercies and Blessings upon you for asking this all-important question, which might help clarify these important terms and manifestations of Tawheed or the Absolute Oneness of Allah Subhanah. The understanding and implementation of Tawheed is so vital and so pivotal in the deen of Islam, that even a slight error in its understanding, or its implementation, or its connotation can take one into the abyss of the one and only unforgivable crime in the sight of Allah Subhanah and the exact opposite of Tawheed: ie. shirk!
The belief of Tawheed, or the Absolute Oneness of Allah Subhanah, or Monotheism, is the absolute pivot of the deen of Islam. May Allah give you and us the wisdom and open your and our hearts to understand and implement this concept of Tawheed, as it deserves to be understood and implemented. Ameen.
Ref: Tawheed Ur Ruboobyah
Tawheed ur-Ruboobiyah is to believe in the Absolute Oneness of Allah Subhanah as the One and Only Rabb in the worlds! He Alone is The Creator, The Sustainer, The Cherisher, The All Mighty, The Provider, The Bestower, and The Originator! Tawheed ur-Ruboobiyah is to believe that there is absolutely no doubt in Allah Subhanah being the One and Only Rabb or Lord of the Worlds, and He has absolutely no partners in his Lordship or Ruboobiyah.
Even the pagan mushriks of Makkah used to admit their belief in the Ruboobiyaah or Lordship of Allah Subhanah. This is something that no person dares to deny!
Allah Says in the Holy Quran Chapter 29 Surah Ankaboot verses 61-63:
61 If indeed thou ask them (the disbelievers) who has created the heavens and the earth and subjected the sun and the moon (to His Law)?; they will certainly reply "Allah." How are they then deluded away (from the Truth)?
62 Allah enlarges the sustenance (which He gives) to whichever of His servants He pleases; and He (similarly) grants by (strict) measure (as He pleases): for Allah has full knowledge of all things.
63 And if indeed thou ask them (the disbelievers) who it is that sends down rain from the sky and gives life therewith to the earth after its death?; they will certainly reply "Allah!" Say "Praise be to Allah!" But most of them understand not.
Allah Says in the Holy Quran Chapter 31 Surah Luqman verses 25-26:
25 If thou ask them (the disbelievers) who it is that created the heavens and the earth?; they will certainly say "Allah." Say: "Praise be to Allah!" But most of them understand not.
26 To Allah belong all things in heaven and earth: Verily Allah is He (that is) Free of all wants, Worthy of all praise.
Tawheed ur-Ruboobiyah is to believe in Allah Subhanah ALONE being the One and Only Rabb or Lord of the Worlds.
Ref: Tawheed Ul Uloohiyyah
Tawheed ul-Uloohiyah is to believe in the Absolute Oneness of Allah Subhanah as the One and Only Ilaah of the worlds! When Allah Alone is the Creator, and Sustainer, and Cherisher of the worlds, then He ALONE deserves to be worshipped. Worship is the exclusive and sole right of Allah Subhanah due from His slaves. All rites, all rituals, and absolutely all forms of worship are due to none, but the One and Only Ilaah or True God of the Worlds, Allah Subhanah wa Taala. That is Tawheed ul-Uloohiyah.
This part of Tawheed is where almost all the pagan and mushrik people and nations had a problem and thus conflict with all the Prophets of Allah Subhanah. These mushriks would accept Allah as being the Rabb of the worlds, but would not give Allah the exclusive and sole right of being worshipped! They had created and invented their own ilaahs or gods they would worship with Allah Subhanah, and thus fell into the abyss of the unforgivable crime and sin of shirk!!!
Allah Says in the Holy Quran Chapter 27 Surah Naml verses 59-65:
59 Say: Praise be to Allah and Peace on His servants whom He has chosen (for his Message). (Who) is better? Allah or the false gods they associate with Him?
60 Or who has created the heaven and the earth, and who sends you down rain from the sky? Yea with it We cause to grow well-planted orchards full of beauty and delight: it is not in your power to cause the growth of the trees in them. (Can there be another) ilaah besides Allah? Nay they are a people who swerve from justice.
61 Or who has made the earth firm to live in; made rivers in its midst; set thereon mountains immovable; and made a separating bar between the two bodies of flowing water? (Can there be another) ilaah besides Allah? Nay most of them know not.
62 Or who listens to the (soul) distressed when it calls on Him and who relieves its suffering and makes you (mankind) inheritors of the earth? (Can there be another) ilaah besides Allah? Little it is that ye heed!
63 Or who guides you through the depths of darkness on land and sea and who sends the winds as heralds of glad tidings going before His mercy? (Can there be another) ilaah besides Allah? High is Allah above what they associate with Him!
64 Or who originates Creation, then repeats it, and who gives you sustenance from heaven and earth? (Can there be another) ilaah besides Allah? Say "Bring forth your argument if ye are telling the truth!"
65 Say: None in the heavens or on earth except Allah knows what is hidden: nor can they perceive when they shall be raised up (for Judgment).
Tawheed ul-Uloohiyah is to believe and thus worship Allah Subhanah ALONE as being the One and Only True Ilaah or God of the Worlds.
Ref: Tawheed Asma Wa Sifaat.
Asma means names, and Sifaat means Attributes; thus Tawheed Asma was-Sifaat means to believe in all the Exclusive and Noble Names and Attributes of Allah Subhanah, and not share any of His Exclusive Attributes with anyone or anything in His creation! None of Allah Subhanahs Exclusive Attributes or Sifaats can be denied, nor can their meaning be lowered or humbled, nor can they be shared with anyone and anything in creation: this belief in the Noble and Exclusive Names and Attributes of Allah Subhanah, in their absolute sense and tense of Perfection, is known as Tawheed Asma was-Sifaat.
For example, one of the Noble and Exclusive Names and Attributes of Allah Subhanah is As-Samee or the All Hearing. If one assumes anyone or anything; any person, any grave, any idol, any Prophet, etc., absolutely anyone other than Allah Subhanah to be All-Hearing, then he has shared this Exclusive Attribute of Allah Subhanah with one other than Allah, and thus guilty of the heinous crime of shirk!
Another example is one of the Noble and Exclusive Names and Attributes of Allah Subhanah is Al-Baseer or the All Seeing. If one assumes that anyone or anything; any person, any grave, any idol, any Prophet, etc., absolutely anyone other than Allah Subhanah has the ability to be the All-Seeing, then he has shared this Exclusive Attribute of Allah Subhanah with one other than Allah, and thus guilty of the heinous and unforgivable crime of shirk!
This applies to each and every one of Allah Subhanahs Exclusive Names and Attributes, and even if one denied, or lowered, or shared an iota of these Exclusive Attributes of the All Mighty Lord with anyone or anything in creation, he would be guilty of committing the most heinous of crimes in the sight of Allah Subhanah, ie. shirk!
One may or may not openly declare his belief that one shares any one of Allah Subhanahs Exclusive Attributes with another in creation, even if one remotely says or does a deed which implies that someone else other than Allah Subhanahu is All-Hearing, or All-Seeing, or All-Powerful, etc.; he will be guilty of the heinous and unforgivable sin of shirk in the Just Court of the All-Just Lord of the Worlds!
Allah Says in the Holy Quran Chapter 10 Surah Yunus verses 17-18:
17 Who doth more wrong than such as forge a lie against Allah, or deny His Signs? But never will prosper those who sin.
18 They serve (worship, invoke) besides Allah things that hurt them not, nor profit them, and they say: "These are our intercessors with Allah." Say: "Do ye indeed inform Allah of something He Knows not in the heavens or on earth? Glory to Him! And far is He above the partners they ascribe (to Him)!"
It is indeed unfortunate and utter ignorance that some people who call themselves muslims today invoke the dead in their graves, or call upon their peers and faqeers and their holy men in the unseen and use them as their intercessors with Allah Subhanah! They falsely assume that these dead in the graves are All-Hearing and can hear them, or All-Seeing and can see them, and All-Powerful who can give them or get them what they need! Alas! Little do they realize that their these deeds clearly imply that they have shared the exclusive Attributes of Allah Subhanah with others in creation, and have thus fallen into the abyss and abomination of shirk!!! May Allah Subhanah guide these people to the Straight Path of Tawheed. Ameen.
Whatever written of Truth and benefit is only due to Allahs Assistance and Guidance, and whatever of error is of me. Allah Alone Knows Best and He is the Only Source of Strength.
Your Brother in Islam,