Are sins forgiven of one who fasts?
Mu' meneen Brothers and Sisters,
As Salaam Aleikum wa Rahmatullahi wa Barakatuh. (May Allah's Peace, Mercy and Blessings be upon all of you)
One of our brothers/sisters has asked this question:
"Whoever gives food to a fasting person to break his fast, shall have his sins forgiven, and he will be saved from the Fire of Hell, and he shall have the same reward as the fasting person, without the latter's reward being diminished at all." [Narrated by Ibn Khuzaymah]
Is the above Hadith authentic? Does the Qur'an say that all one's sins would be forgiven if one gives a person who is fasting food to break his fast? I have not found any such ayat.
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Are sins forgiven of one who fasts?
In the name of Allah, We praise Him, seek His help and ask for His forgiveness. Whoever Allah guides none can misguide, and whoever He allows to fall astray, none can guide them aright. We bear witness that there is no one (no idol, no person, no grave, no prophet, no imam, no dai, nobody!) worthy of worship but Allah Alone, and we bear witness that Muhammad(saws) is His slave-servant and the seal of His Messengers.
The Glorious Quran does give all the specific rewards for fasting; some of these rewards were related by the Messenger of Allah (saws). There are several authentic narrations of the Messenger of Allah (saws) which state a similar theme to the hadith you have quoted from Ibn Khuzaymah.
Al-Tirmidhi Hadith 1965 Narrated by Salman al-Farisi
Allah's Messenger (saws) said in a sermon which he delivered to them on the last day of Sha'ban, "A great month, a blessed month, a month containing a night which is better than a thousand months has approached you people. Allah has appointed the observance of fasting during it as an obligatory duty, and the passing of its night in prayer as a voluntary practice. If someone draws near to Allah during it with some good act he will be like one who fulfils an obligatory duty in another month, and he who fulfils an obligatory duty in it will be like one who fulfils seventy obligatory duties in another month. It is the month of endurance and the reward of endurance is Paradise. It is the month of sharing with others, and a month in which the believer's provision is increased. If someone gives one who has been fasting something with which to break his fast it will provide forgiveness of his sins and save him from Hell, and he will have a reward equal to his without his reward being diminished in any respect." We remarked to Allah's Messenger (saws) that not all of us have the means to give one who had been fasting something with which to break his fast. He (saws) replied, "Allah gives this reward to him who gives one who has been fasting some milk mixed with water, or a date, or a drink of water with which to break his fast. Anyone who gives a full meal to one who has been fasting will be given a drink from my tank (Hawd) by Allah and will not thirst till he enters Paradise. It is a month whose beginning is mercy, whose middle is forgiveness, and whose end is freedom from Hell. If anyone makes things easy for his slave during it, Allah will forgive him and free him from Hell."
Abu Hurairah reported the Messenger of Allah (saws) saying: "Allah, The High and Exalted, said: 'Every action of the son of Adam is for him except fasting, for that is solely for Me. I give the reward for it.' He (saws) also said: The fast is a shield. If one is fasting, he should not use foul language, raise his voice, or behave foolishly. If someone reviles him or fights with him he should say, 'I am fasting,'
This is related by Ahmad, Muslim, and an-Nasa'i.
The Messenger of Allah (saws) said that Allah, High and Exalted, said regarding the fasting believer: "He leaves his food, drink, and desires for My sake. His fasting is for Me... I will give the reward for it, and for every good deed, he will receive ten similar to it."
Related by al-Bukhari and Abu Dawud,
There are several other deeds mentioned by the Messenger of Allah (saws), whereby it is mentioned that Allah Subhanah will forgive the sins of the person. The scholars of Islam are unanimous in their opinion that these sins refer to the minor sins of the person; and major sins are forgiven by Allah Subhanah when one seeks sincere repentance and Taubah from the Merciful Lord.
Whatever written of Truth and benefit is only due to Allahs Assistance and Guidance, and whatever of error is of me. Allah Alone Knows Best and He is the Only Source of Strength.
Your Brother in Islam,