Why did the Prophet (saws) declare Hadrat Ali (r.a.) as his wasi?
Mu' meneen Brothers and Sisters,
As Salaam Aleikum wa Rahmatullahi wa Barakatuh. (May Allah's Peace, Mercy and Blessings be upon all of you)
One of our brothers/sisters has asked this question:
As Salaam Alekum,
I read your Question and Answer with great Interest and surely find many things to learn which you tells us with the help of Quran. Now, I had an argument with one of my friend and according to him we should follow Sayedna because:-
Why do You think Rasulullah s.a.w. declared moulana Ali a.s His vasi, what was the need? the holy Quran had already been nazi on Rasulullah with its clear cut messages for all to read and interpret. why then the need for someone after Him to guide us on the right path? all followers of Rasulullah s.a.w. are Muslims, even yazid was a Muslim with full knowledge and understanding of the teachings of the Quran, are You saying then that he did the right thing by sending to martyrdom the prophets grandson and his Qaafla? NAUZUBILLAH!!!!
Please answer his Question.
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Why did the Prophet (saws) declare Hadrat Ali (r.a.) as his wasi?
In the name of Allah, We praise Him, seek His help and ask for His forgiveness. Whoever Allah guides none can misguide, and who-ever He allows to fall astray, none can guide them aright. We bear witness that there is no one (no idol, no person, no grave, no prophet, no imam, no dai, nobody!) worthy of worship but Allah Alone, and we bear witness that Muhammad (saws) is His slave-servant and the seal of His Messengers.
Brother, there is absolutely no evidence in the Glorious Quran that the Messenger of Allah (saws) appointed anyone as his heir-apparent or wasi. If this appointment was so pivotal to the establishment of Islam, Allah Subhanah would have revealed it in the Holy Quran, just as He, in His Perfect Wisdom and Knowledge, revealed everything else for our guidance. It is not imaginable that the All Wise, All Knowing would forget anything and leave us with hints and innuendoes to decipher ourselves; and then hold us accountable on the Day of Judgement! Those who claim this, actually imply that our Lord and Creator is Unjust and a Tyrant! In their prejudice and ignorance, they have just not recognized Allah!
The Messenger of Allah (saws) did not appoint an heir-apparent or wasi; neither Abu Bakr, neither Umar, neither Uthman, nor Ali ibn Abi Taalib. All the companions had been given such a thorough training, and their level of piety and God-consciousness was developed under the guidance of the Messenger of Allah (saws) to a standard that was never witnessed by mankind. The office of Prophethood is not like a kingdom of this world, where the king must name a crown-prince to rule when he dies!
Many years after the death of the Prophet (saws) and Hadrat Ali (r.a.), some unscrupulous and power-hungry people, to justify their own power-base and create confusion in the Islamic Ummah created this whole appointment system of wasi and succeeded in breaking the One Ummah of Islam into various sects and creeds according to their own whims and fancies!
These sects base their beliefs on this one hadith of Rasool-Allah.
When Allah's Messenger (saws) alighted at the pool of Khumm, he took Ali by the hand and asked those present, "Do you not know that I am closer to the believers than they themselves?" They replied, "Certainly." He then asked, "Do you not know that I am nearer to every believer than he himself?" They replied, "Certainly." He then said, " O Allah, he whose maula I am, has Ali as his maula. O Allah, be friendly to those who are friendly to him and hostile to those who are hostile to him."
Even if we are to believe that the Messenger of Allah (saws) said the above words, it is absolutely incorrect to claim that from this one episode, that the Prophet (saws) appointed Hadrat Ali (r.a.) as his heir-apparent. It is absolutely incorrect to claim that 70,000 from amongst the believers and companions of the Prophet (saws) gave allegiance to Hadrat Ali (r.a.) on this occasion as the appointed heir-apparent, and no sooner than the Prophet (saws) died, they ALL turned against this one order and commandment of the Messenger of Allah (saws) and held on to all the other commandments! It is inconceivable to imagine that from amongst the 70,000 believers and companions, not even a small percentage raised a voice! And we must remember that these believers and companions were the same, who on one command of Allah and His Messenger (saws), were ready to sacrifice all they had; their property, their lives, their family; everything for the Cause of Allah and His Messenger (saws). It is absolutely inconceivable that all of them became renegade the moment the Prophet (saws) breathed his last!
The Messenger of Allah (saws) said several similar statements to honor the other close companions, but that did not make all of them his heir-apparent! These sects just disregard all the other hadiths and take this one hadith and form all their beliefs from it!
Many years after the death of the Prophet (saws) and Hadrat Ali (r.a.), these unscrupulous power-hungry people concocted stories of enmity between Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman and Ali!
Just imagine these facts of history and decide for yourself, if indeed there was any enmity between these noble companions of the Messenger of Allah (saws).
It is well known that Hadrat Ali ibn Abi Taalib (r.a.) married Hadrat Fatima bint Mohamed Rasool Allah (r.a.) and had two sons from this marriage; Imam Hassan ibn Ali (r.a.) and Imam Hussain ibn Ali (r.a.).
After the death of Hadrat Fatema bint Mohamed Rasool Allah (r.a.), Hadrat Ali (r.a.) married several times and had in excess of 20 children, including 11 daughters. And in accordance of Islamic law, he had no more than four wives at any one time. At the time of his death, it is recorded that he had four wives and nineteen slave girls.
Hadrat Ali (r.a.) married a woman from the tribe of Banu Kilaab and her name was Muhaiyya bint Imr-ul-Qais. The children from this marriage were:
Abbas al Akbar bin Ali (Abbas Alamdar).
Uthman bin Ali.
Jaafar bin Ali.
Abdulla bin Ali.
Hadrat Ali (r.a.) later married Laila bin Masood Nashaliyyah and the children from this marriage were:
Abu Bakr bin Ali.
Obaidullah bin Ali.
Hadrat Ali (r.a.) also married a woman from the tribe of Banu Taglab and the children from this marriage were twins: a boy and a girl named:
Umar bin Ali
Ruqqayyah bint Ali
Hadrat Ali (r.a.) later married Asma bint Umais, who incidentally was the widow of Abu Bakr as Siddiq (r.a.).
I just want to point out something here:
The above is all recorded history, but the impression our clergy give is that Hadrat Ali (r.a.) only married Hadrat Fatema (r.a.). They mention Imam Hasan bin Ali and Imam Hussain bin Ali, but never talk about his other children, especially the ones named Abu Bakr bin Ali, Umar bin Ali and Uthman bin Ali.
If what some sects of Islam say about the relationship between Hadrat Ali (r.a.) and Abu Bakr as Siddiq, Umar Al Khattab and Uthman bin Affan is true, then why would Hadrat Ali (r.a.) keep the names of his sons Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman? Hadart Ali (r.a.) only married and fathered these children after the death of the Messenger of Allah (saws). If Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman were indeed enemies of Hadrat Ali (r.a.), as some people would have us believe, why would Hadrat Ali (r.a.) name his children after their names?
Some people have tried to explain this by saying that Hadrat Ali (r.a.) kept these names, despite his enmity with Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, because of political reasons! That is absolutely absurd! Those who claim this, actually dishonor and degrade the high position and the noble character of Hadrat Ali ibn Abi Taalib (r.a.), and have just not recognized the maqaam of Hadrat Ali (r.a.). By explaining that Hadrat Ali (r.a.) kept these names for political reasons, they actually accuse Hadrat Ali (r.a.) of hypocrisy. And I swear by Allah, whoever claims thus are liars!! Hadrat Alis (r.a.) bravery, courage, boldness, daring, heroism and fearlessness have been praised by the Messenger of Allah (saws) himself, and has been appropriately recorded in Islamic history. The truth of the matter is that there was no enmity between all these noble companions of the Messenger of Allah (saws). This enmity was manufactured and invented by unscrupulous and venal people for their own political gains, years after the death of these noble and close sahabees of the Messenger of Allah (saws)! And by doing so, they succeeded in breaking up Islam into various sects, and made each into a small kingdom of its own! May Allah take full retribution with the people who have played this mischief and caused chaos in the One ummah of Islam.
The truth, in light of the Holy Quran and the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah (saws), is that the Messenger of Allah (saws) did not appoint anyone as his heir apparent or wasi! The believers were trained enough to choose an Ameer or Khalifa between themselves in accordance with the Quran and Sunnah. The truth is that there was no enmity between the companions of the Messenger of Allah (saws), Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman and Ali, and they all respected and loved each other in the Islamic Brotherhood that was created by Allah and His Messenger (saws).
Your Comment: All followers of Rasulullah s.a.w. are Muslims, even yazid was a Muslim with full knowledge and understanding of the teachings of the Quran, are You saying then that he did the right thing by sending to martyrdom the prophets grandson and his Qaafla? NAUZUBILLAH!!!!
To understand the situation, I will just try and give an overview of the Islamic political landscape after the death of the Prophet (saws) and the rightly guided Khalifas. After the battle of Siffeen between Hadrat Ali and Muawiya, and after the death of Hadrat Ali, Muawiya took over the position of Khalifa after an agreement with Hadrat Hassan bin Ali, who basically abdicated because in his opinion and wisdom, enough bloodshed and disputes had already taken place between muslims and he did not want the Muslim ummah to suffer any further.
But after the death of Muawiya, and against Islamic principles of transfer of Khilaafa, Muawiya appointed his son Yazid to be the leader. Now Imam Hussain and the other big and noble companions of the Prophet (saws), did not agree with the transfer of leadership of the muslims like a king nominates his son!! They argued rightly that this principle of transfer of leadership was un-Islamic and refused to give "bayt" to the new leadership of Yazid. The leadership of the muslims should be left to the muslims, and they should decide who was the most capable. But Yazid did not want to listen to reason, and waged a war against the people who he thought "revolted" against his leadership and sought to take the "bayt" of Imam Hussain by force. Imam Hussain took up the challenge and sacrificed his life to implement an Islamic principle, and he was absolutely right, as said in the books of history by all the eminent Islamic scholars, whether they are Shias or Sunnis. The other leading companions of the Prophet (saws), like Abdulla ibn Zubair and Abdulla ibn Umar, etc. did not acknowledge Yazid as the Khalifa, but did not take a stand like Imam Hussain. History has witnessed that these companions of the Prophet (saws) never gave "bayt" to Yazid, but they did not openly come up against him either, and Allah will judge them for their intentions and deeds accordingly. But Imam Hussain, being a good muslim, would not allow Yazid to take over the leadership against the Islamic principle of transfer of Khilafaat from father to son and realized the implementation of this principle for future generations. And thus he gave up his life to implement the proper and Islamic principle of transfer of Khilafaat and refused to give "bayt" to the leadership of Yazid. But Yazid, in his hunger for power and leadership, did what kings do, and crushed the "rebellion".
Allah says extremely clearly in Chapter 2 Surah Baqarah verse 134: They were a people who passed away. They shall receive the reward of what they earned, and you shall have the reward of what you will earn. And you will not be questioned as to what they did.
Allah will reward each for his intention and deeds. Brother, what we have to remember here, that what happened after the death of the Prophet (saws) is the History of Islam. The message that the Prophet (saws) had brought was delivered, and the Quran was now written, understood and followed by the good muslims. It does not change Islam or its principles in any way. Allah will reward Imam Hussain for his deeds and Yazid for his deeds, and we will not be asked about them. What some muslims did here, was take the other extreme and started worshipping Imam Hussain and his children ... which again was directly against the Quran ...
Your Comment: I read your Question and Answer with great Interest and surely find many things to learn which you tells us with the help of Quran. Now, I had an argument with one of my friend and according to him we should follow Sayedna because:-
I still do not understand, what does the Syedna have to do with all that happened 1400 years ago in the history of Islam? What we, as believers, are commanded to follow is Allah and His Messenger, Mohamed ar-Rasool Allah (saws). And if any person goes against any of the commandments of Allah and His Messenger (saws), they should not be followed, if indeed you believe in Allah and the Last Day.
He has created a family business empire in the name and garb of Islam; created huge positions for every member of his extended family; does not allow his followers to read the Quran with understanding; and propagates the most hated and heinous crime in the eyes of Allah by advocating shirk, by allowing his followers to bow down to him in sajdah, giving it names like sajdah-tahdeem and sajdah tus shukr! This is absolutely against the guidance of the Holy Quran, and if one indeed believes in Allah and the Last Day, must follow only the Holy Quran and the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah (saws). That is the Siraat al Mustaqeem!
Allah says in the Holy Quran Chapter 3 Surah Ale Imran verse 31-32: Prophet, tell the people, If you sincerely love Allah, follow me. Then Allah will love you and forgive you your sins, for He is All Forgiving, All Merciful. Also say to them, Obey Allah and His Messenger. And if, in spite of this, they do not accept your invitation, warn them that Allah does not love those, who refuse to obey Allah and His Messenger.
May Allah have mercy on the Ummah of Islam, and guide you and us all to the Straight Path.
May Allah guide you and us to read and understand the simple and plain words of the Glorious Quran. May Allah increase our knowledge from the Holy Quran. May Allah guide us to the Siraat al Mustaqeem.
May Allah guide you and us all to the Siraat al-Mustaqeem
Whatever written of Truth and benefit is only due to Allahs Assistance and Guidance, and whatever of error is of me. Allah Alone Knows Best and He is the Only Source of Strength.
Your brother and well wisher in Islam,