Principle in chosing Amir at Saqeefa
Mu' meneen Brothers and Sisters,
As Salaam Aleikum wa Rahmatullahi wa Barakatuh. (May Allah's Peace, Mercy and Blessings be upon all of you)
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12. Ahl'ul Sunnah have four principles of law the Qur'an, Sunnah, Ijtihad and Qiyas. Were any of these principles adopted by the parties during their discussions about the Prophet's successor at the Saqifa?
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Principle in chosing Amir at Saqeefa
In the name of Allah, We praise Him, seek His help and ask for His forgiveness. Whoever Allah guides none can misguide, and whoever He allows to fall astray, none can guide them aright. We bear witness that there is no one (no idol, no person, no grave, no prophet, no imam, no dai, nobody!) worthy of worship but Allah Alone, and we bear witness that Muhammad (saws) is His slave-servant and the seal of His Messengers.
Qiyaas is a part of Ijtehaad. In Islam, only two sources can be taken as the principles of any law: Quran and Sunnah. If a new problem arises (like TV, modern economics, modern forms of contraception, etc.), and if the Quran and Sunnah are silent on that issue; the scholars will try to find a solution to the issue in light of the guidance of the Holy Quran and Sunnah. This is called Ijtehaad.
At the meeting in Saqifa, all three principles of Quran, Sunnah and Ijtehaad were used in deriving the Prophets successor.
Allah says in the Holy Quran Chapter 42 Surah Ash-Shuraa (The Consultation) verse 38:(Those who have believed and put their trust in Allah) conduct their affairs by mutual consultation.
When the Messenger of Allah (saws) was on his death-bed, and was so sick that he could not come to the mosque and lead the obligatory prayers in congregation, he (saws) summoned Hadrat Abu Bakr and told him to lead the believers in the prayers. Hadrat Abu Bakr led the believers in the obligatory prayers for at least 3-4 days in the Prophets Mosque, and all the believers prayed behind him as the Imam. In a pure Islamic state, whoever is the leader is always the Imam of the prayers, thus as long as the Messenger of Allah (saws) was alive he always led the prayers in the mosque. When the Prophet (saws) commanded Hadrat Abu Bakr to lead the prayers, it was a clear indication to the believers that he was the most senior amongst the believers in the sight of the Prophet (saws). Besides, Hadrat Abu Bakr was considered the first adult male who declared Islam in Makkah, he was amongst the closest friends of the Prophet (saws), he was chosen alone by the Prophet(saws) to accompany him on the all-important travel of migration from Makkah to Medina (Hijrah), and his unparalleled sacrifices and contributions in the Cause of Allah, made Hadrat Abu Bakr the natural choice of the believers.
In light of the Holy Quran and the Sunnah of the Messenger (saws), the believers consulted by Ijtehaad and were unanimous in giving their allegiance to Hadrat Abu Bakr. And all the believers including Hadrat Ali, Hadrat Abbas ibn Abdul Muttalib, Hadrat Abdulla ibn Abbas, Hadrat Umar, Hadrat Uthman, Hadrat Abdul Rahmaan ibn Auf, Hadrat Abu Ubaidah ibn Jarrah, Hadrat Ammar bin Yassir, Hadrat Bilaal, etc. gave allegiance to the new leader. There was absolutely no dispute and no difference of opinion at that time. The supposed differences were created by unscrupulous political people many years after the death of the noble companions of the Prophet.
Thus, the Quran, the Sunnah and Ijtehaad were all used in determining the leader of the believers after the death of the Messenger of Allah (saws).
The deen of Islam was completed, the Quran revealed, and the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah (saws) was established at the time of the death of the Prophet (saws). Whatever happened after the death of the Prophet (saws) is the History of the Muslims, and this is in the knowledge of Allah Alone. Allah will not hold us accountable for the deeds of these people, nor ask us about them on the Day of Judgment. We will be asked about our deeds and what did we do for the cause of Islam.
Allah says in the Holy Quran Chapter 2 Surah Baqarah verse 134: They were a people who passed away. They shall receive the reward of what they earned, and you shall have the reward of what you will earn. And you will not be questioned as to what they did.
Whatever written of Truth and benefit is only due to Allahs Assistance and Guidance, and whatever of error is of me. Allah Alone Knows Best and He is the Only Source of Strength.
Your brother in Islam,